Sunday, December 8, 2019

Mental Health Domestic Violence

Question: Discuss about theMental Health for Nursing for Domestic Violence. Answer: Introduction Family violence, domestic violence and relationship violence all this are very common terms generally used to explain the violence between the peoples who were in an intimate relationship formerly. This violence can be psychological, economic, physical, Sexual and emotional abuse or violence. Men are also sometimes victims of these family violence (Chappell Curtin, 2013). The nurses are considered as the largest group of health service provide who possess the primary ethic of caring and an agenda of health promotion and early intervention in their routine work so that the health status of the communities can be improved. Family violence was previously considered as the domain of the social workers, psychiatrist and psychologist. However, nowadays due to the important role of nurses in community setting the domain of family violence has also considered in the routine duty of the nurses. The evidences that are revealed recently shows that the violence and abuse had a great effect upon the health of the women and children, these effected women and children requires support services from the nurses and the health care workers who efficient to deal with these type of violence and abuse. Though the woman and children suffers from health consequences due to these types of family violence and abuse and it has become a serious issue for the womans intimate rel ationship still the reports of cases of family violence is increasing and becoming frequent day by day (Purcell et al., 2014). The nurse have a very significant role to play towards the prevention and early intervention of family violence. It is quite obvious that this type violence occurs across all socio-economic and cultural group. Therefore the nurses required some insight into the nature of these type of relationship so that the nurses can understand the impact of the violence over the victim very vividly and provide them a support and help them to live without the fear of the precarious personal safety. A national survey conducted by the Australian Bureau of statistics found that the cases of the domestic violence in Australia is very high and is reported that one among the five women had to face violence once in their adult life (Stanko, 2013). The family violence can cause a wide range of health problem that are associated with psychological, physical psychogenic and neurological health problems. If a woman is facing a family violence in this circumstances the nurse should immediately response to the woman who seek help and willingness to open up. The responses includes: Listening- The Nurse should Listen to Every Word of the Abused Woman. Communicating belief- It is very important to find out what is the main reason behind fear of the victim. Validating the decision to disclose- The appearance of the nurse should be like that the victim feel free share all the incidence, violence and abuse that the victim has faced. Emphasising the un acceptability of violence- The nurse should make it belief that the victim should not be treated like this. And the nurse should not ask the following question that why you stay with a person like that, what could have been done to avoid the situation, and what id the reason behind this violence and abuse (House Lundy, 2014). Reference Stanko, E. (2013).Intimate Intrusions (Routledge Revivals): Women's Experience of Male Violence. Routledge. Chappell, L., Curtin, J. (2013). Does federalism matter? Evaluating state architecture and family and domestic violence policy in Australia and New Zealand.Publius: The Journal of Federalism,43(1), 24-43. Purcell, R., Baksheev, G. N., Mullen, P. E. (2014). A descriptive study of juvenile family violence: Data from intervention order applications in a Childrens Court.International journal of law and psychiatry,37(6), 558-563. House, P., Lundy, D. S. (2014). Submission to inquiry into domestic violence in australia.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Wife Battering Is A Serious Issue That Is Usually Looked At By Feminis

Wife Battering is a serious issue that is usually looked at by feminists as one of the most relevant signs of the oppression of women. This form of oppression symbolizes the fight women have against the patriarchy and it's hold on social freedoms. There are different spheres which women fight in, music and the music industry is one example of an arena of struggle. Wife Battery is a subject usually delved into by feminist bands or female song-writers, but it takes on a different light when written about and performed by an all male team. With the different perspective comes a new way to prevent this social dilemma. "The Watchmen" and "Matchbox 20" are both male rock bands which have hit the top forty again and again, and who explore the issue of domestic violence. The Watchmen are a Canadian band that gets at least a gold record with every album they release. Matchbox 20, are from the US and sold over 5,000,000 copies of their debut album, with "Push" being one of their biggest songs. The media is a huge sphere of influence in our society, and music is a part of that sphere of influence. The songs Run and Hide and Push both hold reign as popular songs by popular bands so they send their messages even louder than most forms of protest. The fact that the songs are by male artists can only strengthen that voice as wife battery is usually a "female" issue when brought to the public. In this paper I will analyze the effect of the music and it's genres on the social issue of wife battery and examine the topic of domestic violence itself. The artists I have chosen represent the "male voice" of not just feminist protest, but also of the fight for equality and freedom. Domestic Violence There are many definitions for domestic violence, the definition that will be used in this paper is "violence between heterosexual adults who are living together or who have previously lived together in a conjugal relationship."(MacLeod, 1980). While the topic of abuse in lesbian and gay relationships is still an important issue, it broadens the main topic of this paper a little to much to me mentioned. Most reported cases of abuse in the domestic household have to do with wife abuse and the definition of that is: ...violence, physical and/or psychological, expressed by a husband or a male or lesbian live-in loveer toward his wife or his/her live-in lover, to which the "wife" does not consent, and which is directly or indirectly condoned by the traditions, laws, attitudes prevalent in the society which it occurs (MacLeod, 1980). This kind of violence occurs within every facet of society and not just those of low-income of class. There are four types of violence: physical, sexual, emotional and social abuse and each type forms a continuum from minor to major lethality (Tolman, 1997). The most obvious form of violence is physical abuse. This begins with lack of consideration for the physical comfort or needs of others (forgetting a person is waiting for a ride or walking too quickly for a child to keep up), pushing; shoving; hair-pulling escalates to action like punching, bruising and broken bones or injuries which need medical care. Finally, permanent injury can result, using weapons and even murder. A part of physical abuse is sexual abuse. On a continuum this begins with the objectification of women through jokes, humiliating or degrading comments and name calling, it escalates to uncomfortable touching, demands for sex or punishment by rejection of her as a sexual partner. As well, forcing sex after a beating, using weapons to force sex or for sexual manipulation, causing permanent injury and ultimately murder (Tolman, 1997). Another form of violence is emotional abuse. It includes those behaviors that are done directly to the person to render her helpless and totally dependent on the abuser. This begins with jokes about her habits and faults as a women, ignoring her feelings, screaming and yelling menacingly during arguments and repeated uses of insults and humiliation tactics. Threatening to use physical/sexual abuse, blaming and unfounded accusations, geographic isolation or making her stay in the home and destroying her possessions also make up emotional abuse. The last form of

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

How To Grow Your Email List With Lindsey Morando From HelloBar

How To Grow Your Email List With Lindsey Morando From HelloBar Marketers usually have many goals- sometimes too many. And lets not forget about these Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). As marketers, we can measure so much, but what should we focus on to influence real growth? There are several specific lead indicators that marketers can measure that ultimately influence revenue growth: Website visitors, email subscribers, marketing qualified leads, sales qualified leads, and customers. Today, were talking to Lindsey Morando, director of marketing at Hello Bar, which is dedicated to helping marketers build their email list. In this episode, learn why your community of email subscribers is your most valuable asset as a marketer. You’ll get advice on conversion tactics, as well as how to create lead magnets and content upgrades that turn Website visitors into subscribing fans. Definition of List Building: Creating, building up, and cultivating a community of people who have a common interest that you can support and offer a solution People are 40% more likely to sign up for your email list than social media; 73% of companies report that email marketing is their top ROI channel Generate traffic to Website to convert visitors into email subscribers; look at SEO efforts, social media, and where your ideal client is to be in front of them Traffic Building Tips: Joint training, tutorial videos, and Webinars get people to know, like, and trust you; speak at events to increase brand awareness Convert traffic into email subscribers by understanding users and whats going to get them to take action; see where people are going on your site using analytics Pop-ups and lead captures sometimes get a bad rap; its because youre not presenting the right message, at the right time, to the right people Content upgrades are a lead capture within a blog post it’s a pattern interrupt; quizzes, challenges, and games also work well When building an email list develop a plan and schedule based on why someone would want to join your list; provide content that brings value to your community First email should welcome people, share your story, and introduce you; can include a video or downloadable First Email List: Start with people you know; let them know what to expect, what youre going to share, and what value youre going to provide with a call to action Links: Hello Bar Marie Forleo ConvertKit Bonjoro Write and send a review to receive a care package If you liked today’s show, please subscribe on iTunes to The Actionable Content Marketing Podcast! The podcast is also available on SoundCloud, Stitcher, and Google Play. Quotes by Lindsey Morando: â€Å"Having a tool is one part of the battle, but the other part is to know how to use the tool and know how to be a marketer and be able to be successful in this digital world.† â€Å"I see it as creating and cultivating a communityyour tribe of people, people that have a common interest that you can support and provide a solution to.† â€Å"Ive always found email to be the most valuable because it is a direct contact. I think its so valuable because you actually have direct access to it and its your community.† Dont just show up when you have something to sell. Show up all the time consistently, giving your people what they need, and whats going to allow them to be successful.†

Friday, November 22, 2019

Use these 10 tools to figure out your ideal career

Use these 10 tools to figure out your ideal career If you’re one of those people who always knew what you were destined to do for your career, from fresh-faced recent grad to wise retiree, that’s amazing! You are already killing it, plan-wise. But chances are you’re more like the rest of us, and are less than 100% sure of what you want to do with your career. At that point, it takes a little more thinking, prodding, and questioning before you can move on to the career plan. Or maybe you’ve already gone down one path, and either don’t like it or need a change. Whatever the case may be, there are lots of great tools out there you can use to figure out what you should be doing with your career. You’ve probably seen those Buzzfeed-style quizzes all over the place, promising to tell you your age, weight, and best life choices based on the pizza toppings you choose. I’m not here to say those aren’t accurate, but if you truly want to figure out what you want to do with your life, it pa ys to dig a little deeper. Luckily, there are some easy, accessible (and dare I say â€Å"fun†?) online tests and surveys that help you channel your personality and your strengths into a job that matches your greatness.Why do personality and aptitude tests work?Personality tests aren’t always career-related, but they can help you get a baseline handle on who you are, what you like, and what circumstances can help you thrive (or, alternatively, what your biggest challenges might be). All of these things are crucial for helping you figure out a long-term path. They also support a fundamental truth about professional life: you can have all the education and skills necessary to do a job, but whether you do it well- and whether it is fulfilling for you- is largely due to your personality. Your personality is often the forgotten part of the job hunt, lost in the shuffle with resume, cover letter, and interview prep. Yet it’s a major component of who you are, and who y ou’d be on the job.Similarly, aptitude tests may help you define skill sets you didn’t realize you had, or didn’t know that you should emphasize. A little self-knowledge can go a long way, especially when it comes to finding a career path that works for you in the long run.Let’s look at a few of the assessments out there.The Color QuizBelieve it or not, your favorite colors can show what careers might be right for you. In this simple, five-minute quiz, your answers are analyzed and returned as potential career matches.Cost: Free to use and get your results.The Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) AssessmentThis is the classic personality test, used in many different professional and personal contexts to help people become more self-aware and make decisions based on their personal strength areas. It’s a questionnaire (which you can fill out either online or on paper) designed to assess how you see the world in four different areas: directing and recei ving energy (extroverted vs. introverted); taking in information (sensing vs. intuitive); making decisions (thinking vs. feeling); and approaching the outside world (judging vs. perceiving). It reveals insights about how you form and approach relationships, as well as how you communicate- both factors that can help determine whether you become, say, a lab technician versus a stand-up comedian.Cost: Insights don’t always come for free. The official test is $49.95, but there are also free versions available online as well. As part of the cost, you receive a detailed report analyzing your personality type and communication styles.Truity TypeFinder TestsTruity bases their personality assessments on the 16 different types originally outlined by Isabel Briggs Myers (whose name should sound familiar if you just read about the MBTI). They offer a general personality test (the TypeFinder Personality Test), but also a professionally-focused one (the TypeFinder for the Workplace). There are also smaller, targeted personality quizzes available on the site.Cost: The general TypeFinder assessments (both personality and professional) are $29 apiece, but you can take the shorter personality quizzes on the site for free.PymetricsIf games are more your speed than filling out straight-up questionnaires, then Pymetrics might be a more fun way for you to learn more about your personal and professional styles. The Pymetrics method uses game design to help limit anxiety and biases that might be present in more traditional quizzes and surveys, allowing people to relax and make honest choices instead of overthinking or trying to figure out how to â€Å"score high† on a standardized test. At the end of the process, the Pymetrics reports match job seekers with a subset of potential careers based on neuroscience and their algorithms. This new wave of personality assessment is used by schools and many different kinds of companies to assess potential applicants and recruits.C ost: It’s free to sign up and start playing the games, but there may be costs for detailed reporting and career matchmaking.The MAPP Career AssessmentThis assessment is a 22-minute â€Å"test† (flashback to those No. 2 pencils and scantron sheets!) that asks you 71 questions about your likes and dislikes to gauge your potential career interests. The focus is less on the â€Å"right† answer than on the instinctive one. This test bills itself as the â€Å"mapp† to your â€Å"true calling.† And unlike those old-school pencil-and-paper affairs, this can be done entirely online.Cost: It’s free to get started and take the test, but it costs $89.95-$149.95 to get detailed reports and potential job analysesSokanuSokanu takes your answers from a 20-minute quiz, and compares your interests, personality, and preferences to 100 different traits. At the end of the test, you’re matched to a subset of 800 different jobs. Rather than make general rec ommendations like â€Å"astronaut† or â€Å"ballet dancer,† this test prides itself on using deeper data metrics to make specific career recommendations.Cost: Totally free!My Next MoveThis is a very career-focused assessment put out by the U.S. Department of Labor. Also called the â€Å"O*Net Interest Profiler,† this test allows you to take your results and use them to search the U.S. government’s vast database of career information.Cost: This tool is free to use (well, probably funded by your tax dollars- but no additional cost in the meantime).Skills ProfilerIf you’re looking for something more solidly skills-based than personality-based, the U.S. Department of Labor’s other career assessment, the Skills Profiler tool, might be a better fit for you. Instead of taking a personality type and matching it with a job, it lets you input either your current skills to find a matching career, or a job type to see what kind of skills you’ll n eed for it. This can be a good way to see if that job you want to apply for is a good fit for the skills you already have, or if you’ll need to do some building in the meantime.Cost: This assessment is free to use.PathSourcePathSource is a little different- instead of telling you which jobs you should pursue based on your personality or interests, it helps you figure out what kind of job you’ll need to support your lifestyle. It’s an app that assesses your personality and career interests, and also lets you know whether that job in library science is likely to support your caviar dreams. Or, more importantly, whether you’ll be able to pay back the student loans you accumulated in pursuit of your goals.Cost: The app is free to download from the Apple or Google app stores.So how do I use these results in my job hunt?Think of this test-taking as pre-work. You won’t be rattling off your MBTI results on your resume or dropping hints in the interview tha t your love of the color forest green makes you perfect for this job as a firefighter. These are merely in the interest of understanding yourself better, and giving you potential starting points (or eventual goals) that you can use to target your job search or align your goals.If you end up in a job or career that just doesn’t fit who you are, it’s likely that you’ll end up right back at this same place- trying to figure out what does make you tick, and how you can turn that into a more fulfilling job and career. Knowing what types of environments you thrive in, how you work with others, and how you approach the world in general can be invaluable information as you figure out which opportunities to pursue, and it’s an area that you can only access if you make the commitment to understand yourself better.Don’t forget, your resume is the next important step! You can also download free templates from our Resume Library to get started on your resume cr eation.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

A Culture That Supports Financial Acumen Part II Assignment

A Culture That Supports Financial Acumen Part II - Assignment Example by equipping all employees with basic skills in financial profitability, it is easier to expect that the actions of all these people will be focused on the achievement of the financial goals of the organization. Today, there is a new trend with cross-functional team work, which requires that all employees work together as a team. This however cannot be possible when financial acumen is not part of the skills of all employees (Brigham & Houston, 2013). I admire your post for a lot of things but more importantly is the fact that you stressed on the need to make financial acumen everybody’s business at the workplace. Indeed several organizations have failed to experience the full benefits of financial acumen because the whole concept has been made to center round only a few people. Because of lack of understanding for the concept, it is always difficult to get the support of others in implementing strategies that foster financial growth (Brigham & Houston, 2013). Based on personal experience, I realize that some other ways in which organizations can make financial acumen work from a collective perspective is by promoting cross-functional roles. Such roles will ensure that those in departments not directly related to finance will have a means of working with the financial experts. By so doing, the transfer of knowledge from those high on financial acumen can easily go down to those low on financial

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Nature and culture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Nature and culture - Essay Example Considering the various sociological perspectives that can be taken with regard to nature and culture, two stand out from amongst the others. These are the structural functionalist perspective and the conflict perspective both of which consider nature and culture in very different lights. To better understand how they differ and the distinctions made by them with regard to nature and culture it would be useful to examine them individually. First, structural functionalism is founded on the idea that society is composed of structures that are supposed to perform a certain function. In essence, both nature and culture are social structures but culture is more of a social construct than nature (McClelland, 2000). For instance, if a culture is connected deeply to the principles of monogamy it is entirely possible that the cultural elements of the society would lead to the government outlawing polygamy. On the other hand, some cultures may permit polygamy or even polyandry and thus the socially constructed laws in that country may give individuals the permission to create families in that manner. However, the functionalist perspective would suggest that the role of the family unit in both cultures could be more or less the same and the role is not solely dependent on the way in which the family is formed. Therefore, the role of culture in the functionalist perspective would be understood by examining the function performed by culture for a given society. The role of nature becomes something which deals with the individual and the skin bound individual may not be included in the debate on the functions of culture for society. However, the nature of the individual may function quite importantly for a person who interacts with society and thus his/her own nature may cause her to seek out groups which form a sub-culture in the larger culture. On the other hand, the conflict

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Folk Traditions of Trinidad and Tobago Essay Example for Free

Folk Traditions of Trinidad and Tobago Essay This research paper compiles primary and secondary data from interviews with violinists who work or have worked specifically in folk music in the Trinidad and Tobago. It seeks to investigate and document the reasons for and the importance of the violin in Caribbean music culture. The paper will also seek to notarise some elements of folk violin pedagogy. The report will form the basis of an electronic blog and will consist of a proposal, typed interviews, and a general list of interview questions, pictures, audio recordings and music scores. Project Rationale: 1. Cultural information transmitted through written word and musical scores can lose much of their meaning and intent when read, because of the nuisances of both language and melody. For instance, when most ethnic musical styles are notated using the standard begun outside of their context, they are usually played without their correct ‘swing’ or ‘feel’. 2. In November 2011, St. Lucian folk violinist Joseph Ives Simeon died at 87, taking a rich violin pedagogy with him. The player has many recordings, but much of his style died with him. This project is the beginning of this researcher’s (and classical string player from the Caribbean) attempt to preserve the pedagogical information inherent only in the different styles of Caribbean string folk playing, for use by Caribbean players. Objectives: 1. To audio record the sounds and actions of violin playing in the Caribbean folk context. 2. To document the musical views and ideas of current exponents of Caribbean folk violin playing. 3. To define the role of the violin in varying Trinbagonian folk traditions 4. To chart the evolution of the roles of the instrument in Trinbagonian culture General Interview Questionnaire: * How did you learn to play the violin? (How did you learn to play the violin in folk music?) * What types of events do you play for? And what is the significance of your instrument in that setting? * Do you have any stories about your experience of folk violin playing as a spectator? (now and in the past)? * What were the most important lessons your teacher taught you? * Can you describe your holds for the violin and bow? * Can you describe your bowing style? * Please describe your fingering style. * Do you admire any other players (now and in the past)? * Have you ever played classically? How do you feel this style differs in the way it feels OR Is it comfortable to play in this way for long periods of time, or was it ever more difficult to play for longer periods of time? * What are the different types of music that you play? Can you play an example of each? What are the differences among them? The Violin and the Musical Folk Traditions of Trinidad and Tobago. Introduction 2012 marks the Centennial Anniversary of the first ever recording of Calypso music. Engrained in wax (a new technology in 1912), this first recording was ‘Mango Vert’, an instrumental composition by George R.L. ‘Lovey’ Baille (a melody known today as the folk tune Mangoes, with added lyrics by Olive Walke). The stylish, well structured, yet heavily improvised piece was recorded by Lovey’s String Band, a group lead by violins. This paper hopes to explore the violin’s role in Trinbagonian culture in a holistic sense. Apart from the String Bands of yesteryear, we will look at the instrument’s role in Tobago’s Tamb’rin music and the Christmas season staple of Parang. At present, in all three areas, it must be said, the use of the instrument is almost non-existent. My interviews with modern violinists who have worked in and experienced our folk traditions for at least 50 years, highlighted similarities; between very different folk traditions; and to earlier scenarios that were previously thought to have been lost. The violin is an unfretted bowed string instrument with four metal strings tuned in fifths. It is â€Å"capable of great flexibility in range, tone, and dynamics†. The Violin in Calypso The instrumentation used in Calypso is usually the last thing to be discussed, if at all. This tends to be because calypso music is usually seen to be about the lyrics, the story within the song. This is the case with much of Trinidad and Tobago’s music. However, the story of the instrumentation used in Calypso, is a story of a search for a collective identity in our music. The 1912 recordings of Lovey’s String band are the first time that the violin’s importance to our music was archived. Lovey’s String Band was a typical example of Calypso bands of the time. The ensemble, led by him on the violin, consisted of another violin, flute, clarinet, tiple, piano, two guitars, two cuatros, an upright bass (although the Figure 1 picture of the group shows a cello) and a braga. With the exclusion and inclusion of a few instruments (e.g. trumpet, saxophone, oboe), this was the general instrumentation of a String Band. These groups were so called because stringed instruments were in the majority, with acoustic plucked stringed instruments forming the core of the sound (guitars, cuatros, tiples, bragas, bandols etc.). There were many other String Bands around at the time, including Belasco’s Band – founded by the renowned Lionel Belasco; Cyril Monrose String Orchestra; and Gerald Clarke and his night owls. These groups recorded and performed both as standalone instrumental groups and backing accompaniment for Calypsonians. In fact, the sound of early Calypso and what we now call folk music relied heavily on them. Listening to the recordings causes you to realise that these bands had been honing their sound long before they were ever recorded. Lovey’s String Band followed Mango Vert a week later, with recordings of songs like Trinidad Paseo, Mari-Juana, Sarah and Manuelito (See Figure 2), staples of the Trinidadian dance scene at the time. This recording of Manuelito is the only example of foreign-based music archived by the United States National Recording Preservation Board of the Library of Congress, into that country’s National Recording Registry 2002. Figure 1: Loveys Trinidad Calypso String Band Lovey (George R.L. Baille leader, violin), L. Betancourt (2nd violin), P. Branche (flute), W. Edwards (Clarinet), Louis Schnieder (Tiple), E.P. Butcher (Piano), Donald Black, L. Demile (guitars). F.A. Harte, C. Eugen Bernier (cuatros), Patrick Johnson (bass), Cleto Chacha (braga) ( Figure 2: Loveys Trinidad String Band (Musical group) Colonial-era Calypso? Undeniably, all of the recordings from this instrumental era display a high level of musicianship and excellent tonal quality, which particularly for violins, is a sign of classical training. This initial instrumentation is also obviously similar to classical ensemble styles where violins, clarinets (and oboes) regularly duet. Figure 1 also shows Lovey’s band in military-style or marching band style uniforms solidifying the notion that the string bands were heavily ingrained in the activities of Trinidad’s colonial past. Apart from Calypso, the bands also played a variety of European influenced dance styles of music The style and level of improvisation in the music also highlight the obvious influence of American small band New Orleans style Ragtime and blues. As found in those two American jazz artforms, Calypso String Band instruments have similarly set roles. * Guitars and other plucked string and low frequency bowed string instruments held the background rhythmic elements and chords and provided the foundation for all other instruments. * Violins and reed instruments, depending on the preference of the band leader layered on the melody or improvisational ornamentation and musical interludes (all layers always being present) * When vocalists were also involved, the violins tend to be used more often than reed instruments to support the melody line, with the reeds (and later trumpets) providing the musical interludes. The recordings below (Figures 3,4 5) demonstrate these different uses of the instrumentation with earlier recordings (1912 – 1930) displaying the preferential use of the violin, clarinet or vocal team. Later recordings show tendencies toward more structured instrument interlude lines and trumpet leads and reed instrument leads. They also display the introduction of the saxophone to the lead line-up (See Figures 6). Figure 3: Recording of Lovey’s String Band, ‘Mango Vert’, 1912 (double-click the icon below to hear the recording) Figure 4: Recording of ‘Yaraba Shango’ by (Calypsonian) Tiger and Gerald Clarke and his Orchestra, 1936 (double-click the icon below to hear the recording) This recording is still a few years before WWI. Here, the lead improvising instruments were obviously the clarinet and oboe, with the violin playing a secondary lead role playing mainly the same musical line as the main vocal sings and also supports the guitars. Both of these particular secondary roles are common to all of the recordings where the violin is present. ( Figure 5: Recording of the Congo Bara performed by the Kiskedee Trio (written by Attila the Hun), 1935 (double-click the icon below to hear the recording) This version of Atilla the Hun’s (Raymond Quevedo) French patois/English tune relies heavily on the vocal trio to carry the melody. So much so, that the violin’s support of the voices, an octave above is almost missed. At this point, the addition of the marac and piano supplement the more sparse core instrumentation (possibly one or two guitars). A muted trumpet is used to provide the main musical interludes, supported again by the violin. Interestingly however, the trumpet is not used throughout the piece like the violin (and in previous recordings the reed instruments). This reveals the need for balance in the overall band sound in these live, one-track recordings and supports the authenticity of these recordings when compared to live performances. It also helps to clarify the use of the violin and the more dynamically-varied reed instruments in early calypso. The violin was prized in this setting for its ability to mimic the flexibility of the voice. The modern Calypso As unmuted brass instruments became more common because of their sharper, louder and more penetrating sounds, the musical lines in calypso became more structured and simpler. * Guitars continued to be used as core instruments, though fewer (possibly one or two) and usually exclusive of other plucked string instruments * Core instruments accompanied the vocals with simpler chord progressions followed by musical interludes in which the brass instruments would play, to the continued guitar accompaniment. * Clarinets and violins ceased to be used, except in Calypsos written in the style of early calypso * Vocal Calypsoes became the standard form, with instrumentals of the calypsonians compositions done by other instrumental groups, particularly steelpan. Figure 6: Recording of ‘Royal Tour’ by Roaring Lion (1978) (double-click the icon below to hear the recording) As such, the music is very different to the â€Å"jazzy† sounds of earlier calypso. It is in this era (1944) that my calypso-based violinist Stanley Roach was born. Roach was the violinist for Kaiso 2: Happy Days, with Phil Dobson’s band and for the recording for which he is best known, Calypsonian Shadow’s ‘De Hardest Hard’. However, Mr Roach has and always will prefer classical music and so is dedicating the rest of his days to that form, with the hope to produce an album of some challenging works. Roach was classically trained to ABRSM grade 8 (for which he received a Merit) by his father. He continued on to win the televised talent competition Scouting for Talent, in its second year of existence with challenging Romanian dances. His proudest moment however, was being called to play for the prestigious opening concert of the Music Festival many years ago. He has always valued his father’s style of teaching and his opinions. Roach notes that his father â€Å"taught a philosophy behind the music, to do with your mind and spirit†. In building sound technique, his father advised him to â€Å"take it one note at a time (step at a time) and put your mind and your soul and your heart into it†. In this area, he has much in common with the original string band players. With regard to calypso, for Shadow’s â€Å"De hardest hard† he notes that he used a technique of improvising that he calls â€Å"cross-phrasing†, where you improvise from the latter half of the initial phrase to another halfway through the next phrase. This allowed the music to breathe, something that was rare to the New Orleans-style filled sound of early Calypsoes. Roach admits readily that like his father before him, he disliked the way that classical instruments were used in Calypso. However, he was a fan and admirer of the work of Trinidadian parang fiddler Saltero Gomez of the Papa Goon Parang group. Apart from Gomez, his influences are jazz violinist Stephane Grappeli and classical violinist Menuen. Although, like Roach my second interviewee was also taught the violin classically, Lawrence ‘Wax’ Crooks has a genuine love of folk music and always intended to use his skill to play Tamb’rin Music. The Violin and Tamb’rin Music. The violin is the preferred melody line instrument in Tamb’rin music. This traditional folk music from Tobago, also has its roots in our colonial times. The handheld goat skin frame drums, called the cutter, roller and boum, are accompanied typically by the triangle and violin / the mouth organ (See Figure 7). Frame drums were used because they could be easily hidden from colonial masters who had a great fear of the drums. However, similar frame drums can be found in Martinique, the Dominican Republic, Mauritius, Morocco, Brazil and even among the Native Indian population of North America. Additionally, the spiritual dance styles that Tamb’rin music accompanies were derived from a mocking of the dances of the colonial masters during slavery and as such, the types of songs and the dances accompanying them are the reel, jig, pasea etc. Figure 7: Picture of Mt. Saint George Tambrin Band (1995) 56 year old Lawrence ‘Wax’ Crooks, is the violinist and leader of the Royal Sweet Fingers Tamb’rin band. He surprised me by first saying that he was taught to play classically by a classical teacher 7 years ago and joined the band immediately. Wax was a part of a 3-month workshop teaching Tobagonians to play the violin. It was the only formal training he ever received. He notes that it has made him a more precise player than his predecessors, and he has been noted by articles to have a classical bowing technique. However, he relied on his childhood memories to play tamb’rin. With this in mind, he plays with the instrument against his upper arm, so that it is easier to talk while playing in the relaxed settings of the events Tamb’rin music is usually played at. He also noted that it is more comfortable to play in this way and so playing can be done for the many hours of the traditional dances, weddings, christening (now replaced by djs), birth nights, illness (reel dance between 12-12:30 would help, as it would definitely cause a manifestation of the spirit to take place). At more formal events though, he admits to moving the instrument up to the classical position with his chin placed in the chin rest. Wax notes that violin was always the preferred instrument in Tamb’rin music, because: * The long hours of traditional ceremonies would lead to vocalists tiring * Mouth organs were limited in the notes they could play. They could not play the fully correct melody. The more modern push-key mouth organs have greater flexibility and with less need for training, they are starting to become more common than violins. * The violin has flexible notation. Many traditional ceremonies are long because when the spirit manifests itself in the person (Ride), the music must continue until they regain consciousness. â€Å"If you stop playing, you will leave them in another world†. The spirits also dictate the other aspects of of the culture of playing in Tamb’rin. Alcohol is liberally dispensed, as this â€Å"quiets the spirits†. Wax sprinkles rum on the back of his violin for the same reason. Also, tambrin is always played by a group of musicians, as the spirits can overpower one. Wax has seen instances of violin strings bursting and entire drums being lost when conditions are right. Even the music must be appropriate to the situation, or again instruments are scarred or lost. â€Å"When everything is right, the atmosphere is coolsoothing†. Figure 8: Scored Example of a reel â€Å"Call me Mama† Conclusion Interviews and archived material have confirmed that the violin as a solo instrument or in small numbers is a versatile member of a band that was perfectly suited for more traditional, acoustic arrangements. However, owing to changes in culture due to historical experiments with louder instruments (brass and saxophones), they are no longer common in at least two traditional artforms, parang and calypso. With the reinvention of the mouth organ and the lack of another generation interested in traditional forms, the violin is also slowly disappearing from Tamb’rin music. Its use in our music is a result of both classical training and the ingenuity and good ears of of Trinbagonian musicians. For this reason, although there are fewer exponents of each traditional form, there is a wealth of violin students and recordings of the music to spur another generation on. This project has enabled me to find many recordings and has started my interaction with older musicians who have a wealt h of anecdotal information on traditional music forms. It is my hope at this point that I will be able to solidify information on traditional violin pedagogy to pass on to future generations. References What is parang? Nalis Library archives. Last accessed 16 April. The Stringed Instrument Database. The National Recording Registry 2002, National Recording Preservation Board of the Library of Congress, History of Trinidad and Tobago. 2012. Wikipedia. 16 April 2012. ANDREAS MEYER. â€Å"THE OLDER FOLKS USED TO FIDDLE AROUND THE NOTES.† PLAYING THE VIOLIN FOR TAMBRIN BANDS IN TOBAGO (WEST INDIES), 2006, Frame Drums and Tambourines in Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World, Volume 2: Performance and Production. Edited by John Shepherd, David Horn, Dave Laing, Paul Oliver, and Peter Wicke. New York: Continuum, 2003, 349-350, 362-372]. Discography Calypso Best of Trinidad 1912-1952. Calypso Pioneers 1912 – 1937. Calypso Carnival 1936 – 1941 Victor Discography: Lionel Belasco Orchestra,; Victor Discography: Lovey’s String Band,